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a. prevent bending stress failure in compression
b. prevent bending stress failure in tension
c. prevent axial tensile collapse
d. prevent shear stress failure
in Civil Engineering by  

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It is depends on the type of the structural element.

For Beams

We provides links to carry the shear force and torsional moments. So we provide links to avoid shear failures and torsional failures. Torsional links are provided only if there are torsional moments

For Columns

Mainly links are provided to avoid the column buckling. When there are significant shear forces we provide links to carry shear forces. In addition we provide links to mainly the confinement of columns  in confinement zone. This a earthquake detailing.

For Walls

We provide links to carry shear forces and to maintain the confinement.