An Experiment on Hydraulic Jump
Objectives of the experiments:

To create the hydraulic jump.

To verify the questions of fluid flow.

To determine the slatrility & characteristics of the hydraulic jump obtained in the lab using Impulse momentum & specific energy equations.

To compare measured flow depths with theoretical results.
Theoretical background:
Hydraulic jumps are very efficient in dissipating the energy of the flow to make it more controllable & les erosive. In engineering practice, the hydraulic jump frequently appears downstream from overflow structures (spillways), or under flow structures (slvice gates), where velocities are height. A hydraulic jump is formed when liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity only if the 3 independent velocities (y1, y2, fr1) of the hydraulic jump equation conform to the following equation:
Y2 = y1/2 [1+√1+8Fr2 ]
Fr2 = 92/9y3
Apparatus:
 Glass walled flume with sluice gates & a spillway arrangement
 Point gauges
 Manometer & scales
 Pump
Also See: Water Hammer
Procedure for Hydraulic Jump Experiment:

I started the pump to supply water to the flume.

Then I closed the tail gate to allow water to accumulate and to develop hydraulic jump.

I adjusted the position of the hydraulic jump by adjusting the amount of closure of slvice gate.

I then measured the depth of the bed of flume by using a point gauge.

In the next step , I measured water surface level before it had crossed the spillway.

Then I measured height of spillway & the depth of water over the spillway.

Using the point gauges I then determined the water surface levels downstream of the jump.

Then I measured y1 & y2.

I repeated the measurement steps again for a different flowchart.
Results:
S.No  Hm(m)  Y1(mm)  Y2(mm)  Lj(m)  H(mn)  H1(mn)  H2 
1  0.8  342  46 2  6.5  24  106  0.45 
Sources of errors:
Human errors:
 Errors occurred during measurements i.e. by taking erroneous reading of depths or in micrometer.
 Errors occurred in operation of slvice gates.
Instrumentation error:
 Leakage from the flume
 Assumptions of ideal conditions did not prevail:
 Ideal conditions which prevailed in the theoretical equations were not there and frictional forces also had some effect on the experiment.